What caused these deformed barley heads? - The Combine Forum
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post #1 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 02:54 AM Thread Starter
jvw
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What caused these deformed barley heads?

Nearly all later emerging heads down below the canopy are deformed in various ways. Most tall earlier heads look mostly normal. Most of the late heads are unable to get out of the sheath, and are coming out the side, ratty, blank warped heads. But others have a second head branching out of the first head, or a second head further down the stem. Or appear to be a 6 row at the base of the head then back to a 2 row. Or the bottom few kernels are fanned out, the top are tight like usual. One in the picture is completely twisted up and deformed still inside the leaf. I found one wild oat with similar deformation, also in the picture.

Only the second year I have cropped this piece. Hay or oats forever before that.
Certified Sirish is the variety, first time I've tried it.
Seeded around the 24th of May, direct seeded into canola stubble, preseed was roundup only.
Came back at ~ 3 leaf stage with 2-4D Ester for persistent alfalfa and volunteer canola.
Spot sprayed wild oats with full rate Axial at the same time.
Thanks to all the rain, a lot more wild oats showed up, and hemp nettle which the 2-4D didn't touch, so in 3rd week of June I sprayed the entire field with 2/3 rate of Axial, and MCPA. Still tillering, not quite flag leaf.
The crop got off to a very quick start, and canopied over quickly, but was really slow heading. I was blaming the Axial, since it is usually really obvious where it has been sprayed, by the crop being set back and pale for a while, except it wasn't any worse where it was spot sprayed the first time.
All crops are way behind thanks to no heat or sun and constant rain all summer, but this one is even further behind than the rest, still green as grass and still putting out more (deformed) tillers.
Has been almost ideal growing conditions especially on this well drained flat soil.
The normal heads have the odd kernel completely missing, and some random kernels turning brown, seeing the same thing in another field with Sirish, but didn't see any deformed heads there, will look closer. May be from hail, there have been some very minor hail storms.
Another field with Newdale ( 2 row also) seeded late for greenfeed into muddy, low, compacted ground has areas with heads unable to come out properly, coming out the side, mostly in really poor areas that had really bad water stress, higher areas look normal. But didn't see such deformations as this, the heads appear to be normal other than growing in a circle with the beards caught in the sheath.
Could this be herbicide damage?
Downy Mildew (also called crazy top) apparently causes heads to look like that, but I can't find much information on it.
Genetics?
My first thought was Aster Yellows, they devasted barley here in 2012, lots of deformed blank heads, but the canola a few feet away from where I picked these plants has no sign of Aster Yellows.

The picture I took in the dark is awful. First head is normal at the top, almost 6 row at the bottom, second is two heads on the same stem, the top head in that picture is typical of most of the late heads. 3rd is a second head growing out of the first. 4th is a head all twisted up and contorted in the sheath. 5th is a wild oat with similar deformations, right in the corner, so likely escaped any herbicide. None of these were from areas that were spot sprayed the first time.

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post #2 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 03:49 AM
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Mosaic virus
Heads are trapped by the sheath


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post #3 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 09:47 AM
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I have seen similar from being sprayed in the boot.

Mosaic virus? Similar to wheat streak mosaic virus? People get that in their winter wheat around here. IF you find it I know many will just kill out the crop and reseed. I have been told it over winters in the green plants. Another reason many will grow pulses or spring wheat in their rotation.

https://www.plantpath.k-state.edu/ex...saic-virus.pdf

Or is it more Barley Yellow mosaic virus?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barley...w_mosaic_virus

I am learning here. I have little personal experience with either.
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post #4 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 09:56 AM Thread Starter
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I can find nothing about Mosaic virus in North America, just overseas. And all mentions are in winter barley. All of the symptoms indicate it should show up on the leaves first, and I don't see anything on the leaves.

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post #5 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 10:04 AM
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Too much phenoxy is my guess.

24d at 3 leaf is a little early, generally you want to be well tillered. So the smaller stuff at the time got whacked . Then going over the top again with mcpa probably didn't help much. Which is why you're seeing the damage where you went second time.

That would be my guess.
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Last edited by Slashnburn2; 08-20-2019 at 10:09 AM.
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post #6 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 01:30 PM
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We have the same in some wheat. It’s because it was sprayed a little to early...my damage is very small but when it’s wet all the time, you spray when you can.

The head pushed out the side of the sheath, instead of going out the top, then it started twisting in a circle.

Last edited by coolio; 08-20-2019 at 01:32 PM.
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post #7 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-20-2019, 06:32 PM
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Yep phenoxy damage, too early for 24d at 3 leaf too late for mcpa at flag emergence
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post #8 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-21-2019, 01:53 AM Thread Starter
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I had two experts both insist that this is typical hail damage from minor hail while still in the boot.

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post #9 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-21-2019, 09:59 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jvw View Post
I had two experts both insist that this is typical hail damage from minor hail while still in the boot.
It's better to have half retarded looking cereals than a weed problem next year.
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post #10 of 10 (permalink) Old 08-21-2019, 10:45 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by nicko87 View Post
Yep phenoxy damage, too early for 24d at 3 leaf too late for mcpa at flag emergence
Quote:
Originally Posted by jvw View Post
I had two experts both insist that this is typical hail damage from minor hail while still in the boot.
A bit of swag but all these factors could contribute to what you are seeing. Are the damaged heads going to make grain?

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